Drawing on foundational arguments from the literature on emerging market institutional strategies, and employing a realist historical analysis, we present a retrospective on the Russian automotive industry. We begin by tracing the origins of the sector and synthesizing salient post World War II developments. We then recount the subsequent expansionary decade of the 1960s, followed by the stagnation of the late 1980s, culminating in the eventual collapse of socialism and the breakup of the USSR. Attracted by both the rapid growth in the local market, and the preferential tax rates that accompanied investments, we then document the swift expansion of production facilities in Russia by major global manufacturers in the 2000s. We show how eventually an ensuing sharp halt in local market growth, and an accompanying rise in spare production capacity, saw most manufacturers pursue institutional strategies aimed at obtaining new tax concessions and leveraging intra-industry cooperation, rather than divesting their recently established production facilities. Overall, our retrospective, in particular, calls attention to how global manufacturers were able not only to acquire and rejuvenate existing production facilities or install new greenfield ones, but also to exercise their agency in shaping the broader policy framework and in fashioning new sectoral institutions designed to buttress and sustain the industry.
The purpose of this paper is to address issues related to better identification of strategic orientation of the firm and the impact of strategic orientation on sustainable development of the firm. The paper presents an overview of the existing literature on strategic orientation of the firm, reexamines the major findings and fills the discovered gaps in theoretical constructs and models by new models. In this paper a new model of strategic orientation is proposed based on the type of relationship of a firm with its stakeholders who are considered as suppliers of key strategic resources. Relationship between the firm and its particular stakeholder is presented on an input-output like scheme and the variants of the position of the firm towards all its stakeholders serve as foundation for determining strategic orientation types. Next we present orientation of firms of different strategic types towards sustainability. The paper outlines several novels problems for strategic management and organizational design theory. The paper provides a novel treatment of strategic orientation and particular strategic types.
The objective of this paper is to reveal the main directions of changes in Russian agribusiness caused by the food embargo through the lens of interfirm relationships.
Qualitative research in the form of focus group was conducted. The focus group consisted of 9 participants, representatives of the senior management of Russian agribusinesses.
Findings and implications
The study reveals that the Russian food embargo contributes to the development of interfirm relationships in the Russian agribusiness. Both retailers and manufacturers tend to use a relational approach and to develop interfirm relationships in order to build sustainable value chains and long-term relationships with partners. The resulting conclusions represent important changes in interfirm relationships between different actors of agribusiness: (1) retailers tend to interact with providers toward building sustainable value chains; (2) at the same time the criteria imposed by retailers to their suppliers are gradually changing. The possibility to change the supply conditions plays a significant role as does as the ability to operate in a turbulent environment.
Despite the large number of empirical studies exploring the impact of the embargo from different angles, there is still a lack of research concerning the consequences of embargoes in terms of interfirm relationships. This study extends the literature on the impact of embargoes and fulfills an identified need to study the consequences of embargoes in terms of developing interfirm relationships. This is the first Russian study to empirically examine the impact of the embargo on Russian firms’ interfirm relationships.
We analyze how artificial intelligence changes a significant part of the energy sector, the oil and gas industry. We focus on the upstream segment as the most capital-intensive part of oil and gas and the segment of enormous uncertainties to tackle. Basing on the analysis of AI application possibilities and the review of existing applications, we outline the most recent trends in developing AI-based tools and identify their effects on accelerating and de-risking processes in the industry. We investigate AI approaches and algorithms, as well as the role and availability of data in the segment. Further, we discuss the main non-technical challenges that prevent the intensive application of artificial intelligence in the oil and gas industry, related to data, people, and new forms of collaboration. We also outline three possible scenarios of how artificial intelligence will develop in the oil and gas industry and how it may change it in the future (in 5, 10, and 20 years).
The goal of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for predicting whether the company will go bankrupt on the base of unbalanced data. To do it, we propose to consider the classification as a multi-objective optimization problem and construct a prediction model as an ensemble while minimizing the parameters FPR (False Positive Rate) and FNR (False Negative Rate) at the same time. To create the ensemble, the proposed algorithm of a Multi-Objective Classifier Selection (MOCS) selects only classifiers that belong to the Pareto-optimal set in FPR/FNR space; that is, there is no dominance between them, and they satisfy some additional conditions. In the general case, MOCS is determined by three parameters: two threshold values that limit false rates (FNR and FPR), and the crowding distance, which defines the uniqueness of the classifier's results. We tested the proposed algorithm on data collected from 2457 Russian companies, 456 of which went bankrupt, and 5910 Polish companies, 410 of which received bankruptcy status. Datasets contain features such as financial ratios and business environment factors. In the testing, we used more than 70 combinations of under-sampling, over-sampling, and no sampling methods with static and dynamic classification models. Final ensembles include seven classifiers for the Russian dataset and four classifiers for the Polish dataset combined by soft voting rule. In both cases, the proposed algorithm produces a significant improvement of prediction results as in terms of standard metrics (geometric mean, the area under the ROC curve) and in the visual representation in the FNR/FPR space, namely in the shift from a Pareto-optimal set of classifiers.
The growing interest and expectations from the blockchain applica-tions attract many analysts to this issue. In what spheres of logistics and supply chain management blockchain is appropriate? What blockchain software solutions are available to companies now? This paper investigates the basic function-ality of the existing software solutions on the market, the comparative analysis of blockchain platforms used for developing the solutions for logistics is also carried out. The main trends of blockchain applications are identified, based on the analysis of the project experience on the use of blockchain, in logistics and supply chain management, in different countries. The problems, limitations and conditions of blockchain implementation are also determined.
This book highlights interdisciplinary insights, latest research results, and technological trends in Business Intelligence and Modelling in fields such as: Business Intelligence, Business Transformation, Knowledge Dissemination & Implementation, Modeling for Logistics, Business Informatics, Business Model Innovation, Simulation Modelling, E-Business, Enterprise & Conceptual Modelling, etc. The book is divided into eight sections, grouping emerging marketing technologies together in a close examination of practices, problems and trends. The chapters have been written by researchers and practitioners that demonstrate a special orientation in Strategic Marketing and Business Intelligence. This volume shares their recent contributions to the field and showcases their exchange of insights.
n the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created a new reality. Each country has implemented different measures to contain the pandemic, which has had many consequences for society and businesses. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed consumer behavior in the BRICS countries and discuss the role of consumer trust and anxiety. A systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis was carried out to identify research directions and reveal the role of trust and anxiety in consumer behavior. Differences in consumer responses to the COVID-19 pandemic challenges in Brazil, Russia, India, and South Africa were identified based on an analysis of an international database of online surveys. An empirical study of Russian consumers was conducted in the spring of 2020. Cluster and factor analyses were applied to reveal different consumer strategies of coping with the crisis. The study revealed differences in consumer trust and the level of anxiety in the BRICS countries. In the empirical study of Russian consumers, anxiety was identified as one of the factors in changing consumer behavior in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Extract-transform-load (ETL) processes play a crucial role in data analysis in real-time datawarehouse environments which demand lowlatency and high availability features for functionality. In essence, ETL- processes are becoming bottlenecks in such environments due to complexity growth, number of steps in data transformations, number of machines used for data processing and finally, increasing impact of human factors on development of new ETL-processes. In order to mitigate this impact and provide resilience of the ETL process, a special Metadata Framework is needed that can manage the design of new data pipelines and processes. In this work, we focus on ETL metadata and its use in driving process execution and present a proprietary approach to the design of the metadata-based process control that can reduce complexity, enhance resilience of ETL processes and allowtheir adaptive self-reorganization.We present a metadata framework implementation which is based on open-source Big Data technologies, describing its architecture and interconnections with external systems, data model, functions, quality metrics, and templates. A test execution of an experimental Airflow Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) with randomly selected data is performed to evaluate the proposed framework.
Our interest here lies in supporting important, but routine and time-consuming activities that underpin success in highly distributed, collaborative design and manufacturing environments; and how information structuring can facilitate this. To that end, we present a simple, yet powerful approach to team formation, partner selection, scheduling and communication that employs a different approach to the task of matching candidates to opportunities or partners to requirements (matchmaking): traditionally, this is approached using either an idea of ‘nearness’ or ‘best fit’ (metric-based paradigms); or by finding a subtree within a tree (data structure) (tree traversal). Instead, we prefer concept lattices to establish notions of ‘inclusion’ or ‘membership’: essentially, a topological paradigm. While our approach is substantive, it can be used alongside traditional approaches and in this way one could harness the strengths of multiple paradigms.
Context is increasingly recognised as a critical explanatory variable in accounting for commonalities and differences in human resource management. Giving expression to it in research models holds the prospect of enhancing theory development, deepening our appreciation of embedded practices in diverse territories, and opening up new lines of enquiry. However, contextualisation presents a significant research challenge and increasingly, international academic research networks that bring together scholars from different countries in the co-production of knowledge represent a key approach to rising to this challenge. This volume documents aspects of the development of one such network, namely the Cranet Network on International Human Resource Management, and presents a series of recent contributions from the network. The chapters highlight, inter alia, the limits to convergence in human resource management as a result of contextual determinism, the role of institutional actors, markets, and work regulation in accounting for variations in practices, the contextual specificities and dynamics at play in transition economies, along with key methodological challenges that arise when seeking to build cumulative comparative knowledge via network collaborations of this nature.
As an exogenous antecedent of national innovation performance, culture has been receiving significant attention in cross-cultural research. However, relying primarily on Hofstede’s framework of national culture, this research has so far been predominantly inclined to treating culture as a collection of independent dimensions, thereby ignoring the complex notion of culture profiles that refer to distinctive patterns of interrelated dimensions, which cannot be considered in isolation, but only in combination. Employing the lens of neo-configurational theory and with the support of the fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), the present study aims to fill this gap by exploring how multiple Hofstede’s dimensions interact and combine to influence national innovation performance. In this way, this study goes beyond the existing theory and empirical evidence about the relationship between distinctive culture profiles and innovation performance at national level, while broadening our understanding more generally about how to conceptualize and operationalize culture in business research.
This study aims to explore the current trends in fraud prevention in the insurance industry in Russia. Survey responses from 20 experts and professionals of the leading insurance companies in Moscow were collected. More than a half of them are former police officers who work at security or investigation departments. Survey data analysis was employed. According to the experts’ opinion, existing gaps in the legislation and difficulties in cooperation with the police are the main sources of inefficiency of fraud prevention strategies utilised by the Russian insurance companies. The respondents agreed that both insurers and fraudsters actively use new technologies. Fraudulent claims in compulsory third party liability motor insurance remain the most common activity among Russian criminals, although they quickly expand to health and property insurance. Typically, an insurance fraudster is a 34-year old male with a college/university degree who cooperates with an insurance broker in 42 percent of cases. Based on this, a set of recommendations aimed at increasing the efficiency of insurance fraud prevention was produced.
Recently, transfer learning from pre-trained language models has proven to be effective in a variety of natural language processing tasks, including sentiment analysis. This paper aims at identifying deep transfer learning baselines for sentiment analysis in Russian. Firstly, we identified the most used publicly available sentiment analysis datasets in Russian and recent language models which officially support the Russian language. Secondly, we fine-tuned Multilingual Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), RuBERT, and two versions of the Multilingual Universal Sentence Encoder and obtained strong, or even new, stateof-the-art results on seven sentiment datasets in Russian: SentRuEval-2016, SentiRuEval-2015, RuTweetCorp, RuSentiment, LINIS Crowd, and Kaggle Russian News Dataset, and RuReviews. Lastly, we made fine-tuned models publicly available for the research community.
The collapse of the Soviet Union’s centrally-planned economy suggests that resources’ allocation, under socialist rule, was woefully inefficient and, ultimately, gave way to a market economy. For the successful transformation from socialism, entrepreneurship is essential. In the meantime, family business becomes an essential organisational form of private enterprise, facilitating market transformation. Family entrepreneurship plays a pivotal role in transition economies. In this chapter, we first stipulate the importance of entrepreneurship and market process for transition economies by focusing on three main activities, including the discovery of opportunity, mobilisation of resources, and creation of organisation; we then discuss the concept of family entrepreneurship. Secondly, we review the development of Russian family businesses for both big family businesses and SMEs. Thirdly, based on analysing the entrepreneurial process, we are able to identify the underlying predicaments during the promotion of entrepreneurship in transition economies. Although many transition economies are in the process of the market transformation, given their different political, social, and economic institutions, the path chosen might be different, and it is essential for transition economies to clear the obstacles for entrepreneurial activities.
Abstract. The development of retail electricity markets was specific in different countries. There is an important condition for further development of an electric power system with active consumers and prosumers’ participation and the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), other innovative technologies and smart solutions. This study is aimed at observation of tracks of development and of retail electricity market characteristics in some countries through introducing a uniform framework for comparison. The results can help both experts and authorities to better understand the tasks and the conditions for the processes of energy transition. 1. Introduction Recent changes in the global power energy sector have been mostly shaped by the transformation of the global economy, energy policy in the developed countries and technological advances in electricityrelated technologies. The previously unavailable technologiesto the actors of the sector are digital power electronics; technologies for bulk data storage (cheaper drives), its processing (networks and network equipment with higher bandwidth) and security (blockchain algorithms). There are also technologies for real-time demand-response; tools for multivariate modelling of power systems and their components; technologies for automation of commercial relationships in the market (including smart contracts) . These advances, in their turn, re-shape the organizational basis of the industry through changes in the structure of stakeholders (emergence of prosumers and demand aggregators, dissemination of demand response practices and various complementary services) and nature of their collaboration. Alongside with above-mentioned new participants of the market, nowadays there is a constellation of new-entrants, providing various complementary services. These are digital data operators (who process the data, collected from smart metering devices, installed within the system and allow revealing consumption patterns and optimizing the whole system); providers of forecasting and prognostic services, etc. [2–5]. The described above changes lead to the situation when traditional electric utility market models, despite being considerably reliable and verified, are no longer able to fulfill all the requirements of the participants and to cope with the dynamic environment. This, in turn, brings to the necessity of elaboration of a new model, enabling to take into account mentioned changes, provide value to the actors involved, and stay sustainable in the long-run way. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 2 Meanwhile, such changes require a corresponding external environment, which would allow actors of the power sector to adapt to these trends. This environment should be flexible and incorporate a certain degree of competitiveness. Therefore, it could create adequate stimuli for the participants to invest in new technologies and re-shape their business models. We suggest a uniform framework for the comparison of different models of retail electricity market that would allow for a meaningful analysis of the experience of different countries. 2. Methodology and approach The practical implementation of the described models varies from country to country. This paper will pay particular attention to the retail markets of the following countries: USA, China, Singapore, Germany, and Russia, which represent both transition and developed economies. The choice was determined by the availability and by cohesiveness of information provided in open sources. It is worth mentioning that the analysis of each case will start with the retrospective timeline of institutional and industrial changes of the power sector, as they are essential for understanding the backbone of the model applied at a certain country. This paper has the following structure: literature review of theoretical electricity retail models, applied at the moment; tracks of retail electricity markets development provided; characteristics of retail markets in different countries to be studied: a mechanism of price regulation at the retail market; a level of concentration within the generation segment; a market share of power supply companies; a degree of value chain integration; a choice of power supply company for consumers. 3. Major models for retail electricity markets For a substantial period of time most of the electricity markets were vertically integrated, when all the elements of the value chain (starting with generation and up to the electric power supply) were controlled by a single firm (often state-owned). Gradual democratization and globalization processes were followed by the implementation of competitive elements into the existing retail market mechanisms, including the changes in the participants and cooperation between market agents. Conducted analysis of open data on the topic of electricity market liberalization [6–9] allowed one to outline three major models of retail electricity market differentiated by the level of liberalization: Monopoly, Single buyer, Competition in retail. Each of the models incorporates a unique market structure and channels for the participation of the members. Positive and negative sides of the described models are provided in the following tables (Table 1-3). Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of the monopoly model for the electricity retail market Advantages Disadvantages Greater control of regulators over the whole system Ability to implement various state policies (absence of resistance) Simplicity Greater coordination on the side of supply Lack of choice for end-consumers (high dependence on the power supply company functioning in the area) Lack of incentives for verticallyintegrated companies to modernize and increase their efficiency Possible state interventions in pricing mechanism All price risks on the side of consumers MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 3 Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of the single buyer model Advantages Disadvantages Competition among generation companies (incentives for modernization and optimization) Price averaging through long-term contracts Regulated tariffs (determined in longterm contracts), providing sufficient investments into capacity Artificial long-term price-setting (long-term contracts may inadequately cover arising additional costs of energy suppliers) Absence of supplier choice for endconsumers All price risks on the side of consumers Table 3. Advantages and disadvantages of the competition in the retail model Advantages Disadvantages Competitive pricing (based on the supply-demand equilibrium in dynamics) Choice of supply conditions for endconsumers Possibility for creation of the deregulated market (competition based) Necessity for complicated structural and legal transformations for implementation of the model Necessity for complex infrastructural support of the system Complication of the metering system Described models of the retail electricity market are the most common in modern practice. They vary by the level of market liberalization and availability of the choice for consumers. More centralized ones are easier to control and manage, while liberalized models are more flexible and efficient in a stable institution and macroeconomic situation. Nevertheless, it is an open question on which model to choose that will be adjustable and stable under the condition of energy transition and global transformation. However, the choice of the model rests upon certain factors – both of institutional and industrial nature. These factors will be studied in detail in the following sections of the paper. 4. Comparative analysis of retail electricity markets in different countries Thorough study of the models in every chosen country will be done in this section of the paper. Country tracks of retail electricity markets development and characteristics of retail markets will be observed. 4.1. USA The development of the USA retail electricity market represents a transition from the local competitive microsystem in the early years to creation of large monopoly and after to a partial competition. Nowadays the market functions in the form of a partially competitive one, as just over 20 states have adopted this model  (Figure 1). It is worth mentioning that the specificity of the USA energy sector is determined by the tight bonds between electricity and gas markets, most of which is still exposed to high levels of state intervention. Power companies are regulated both at the federal and state levels. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) is responsible for retail electricity market and interstate transmission, while state commissions are governing the state level market – distribution and sales segments in particular. And one more important fact is that in integrated states (where power companies are vertically integrated) transmission tariff and sales premium are calculated by state commissions basing on the economic rules. At the same time, in deregulated states (where generation is competitive, and sales premium is market-determined) transmission and distribution tariffs are regulated by state commissions [11, 12]. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 4 Figure 1. Transformation of the USA retail electricity market (Source: Authors’ summary of ). In such manner, by nowadays the USA has adopted two models of the major retail electricity market– centralized market (in two forms) and bilateral contracts (Table 4). Table 4. USA retail electricity markets [13, 14]. Centralized Market Bilateral Contracts (3) VICa (1) Retail choice (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation State-regulated (“costs plus” basis) Generation tariff is marketdetermined and transmission tariff is regulated Determined Contract (either bundle or customized proposition) Concentration in generationc 5 major generating companies occupy 22% of the market CR5 = .22 Number of power supply companies 5 major power supply companies occupy 56% of the market MSi ~19.9% Value chain integration VIC Generation Transmission Distribution + Sales VIC Consumers’ choice of power supply company No Yes No Model Monopoly Competition Monopoly Implemented in AR*, CA, IA*, IN, KS, KY*, LA*, MN, MO, MT*, ND*, NE*, NM*, OK, SD*, VA, VT, WI, WV CT, DE, IL, MA, MD, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, TX AK, AL, AZ, CO, FL, GA, HI, ID, MS, NC, NV, SC, TN, UT, WA, WY Market share of the modelb 32% 41% 27% a : VIC – Vertically integrated company. b : market share is calculated basing on the number of consumers living in the mentioned states. c : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share; * : these states use a hybrid model. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 5 Within the monopoly model VICs use “cost plus” pricing, which is criticized by many experts (not only from the power sector)  as this mechanism may lead to overinvestments and creates not enough stimuli for increasing efficiency. The competition model, on the other hand, provides consumers with the ability to choose the supplier and tariff plan and to develop other active strategies, including demand response, becoming prosumers, implementing energy effective solutions, etc. Independent power supply companies determine their own competitive rates for production and services, but network tariffs are still regulated by the government. This model was implemented as a reaction to the strongly regulated electricity prices (compared to the relative costs level) in certain states. A lot of consumers find this model to be rather attractive as competitive prices are usually lower compared to those at the regulated markets. However, critics of this model stress the fact that a lot of generators do not consider households as an attractive segment (due to its relatively small share in consumption) and are rarely involved into competition due to a low level of the profit margin . Fast developing new sectors (innovative energy ecosystem, intellectual integrated energy systems, prosumers’ generation, energy storage, smart microgrid, etc.) change and complicate the retail electricity market structure, strategies of participants and rules. 4.2. China China activity for developing of power sector was extensive and ambitious in last thirty years and the country catches up the other leaders except for the competitive retail market model. Starting from the 1980-s key processes of the changes there was decentralization and deregulation with the shift away from a state-regulated vertically-integrated monopoly and creation of a competitive market [16, 17, 18] (Figure 2). However, these shifts are still in progress. Figure 2. Transformation of the Chinese retail electricity market [16–21] The retail sector of the Chinese electricity market is not competitive at the moment (state owned enterprises still supply over 80% of the electricity) and consumers have no choice other than purchasing it from local power supply companies (Table 5). MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 6 Table 5. The model of the Chinese retail electricity market [19, 21, 22]. Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Long-term (20 years) contract for power supply company Concentration in generationa 5 major generating companies occupy 100% of the market CR5 = 1.00 Number of power supply companies 5 (affiliated with generators) + 300 local (function nominally) MSi~20% Value chain integration Generation Transmission + Distribution + Sales Consumers’ choice of power supply company No Model Single buyer a : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share However, market transformation is ongoing at the moment and fast development of RES, smart city projects and other innovative sectors in energy support it. In 2016 the National Commission of Development and Reforms (2015a) published the document, which implicates further development of a competitive retail market: shift from direct supplies to competition and implementation of the “Internet of Energy” concept . 4.3. Singapore The creation of a competitive retail electricity market model in Singapore was executed in a rather abrupt time period, caused by massive foreign investment attraction, which required a corresponding infrastructure. For the period between 1995 and 2003 the country was able to shift from regulated monopoly to a competition in retail (Figure 3). Figure 3. Transformation of the Singapore retail electricity market [24, 25]. Note: PUC – Public Utilities Committee At the moment, the market model can be described as a partial competition, when only a certain part of the consumers has choice of a supplier (Table 6). However, even under the following conditions a considerable share of consumers has a choice of a power supplier, what, coupled with the openness of the government, makes the whole system more flexible and attractive for doing business. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 7 Table 6. Singapore retail electricity markets models  When power supply companies are market participants (1) When power supply companies are not market participants (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Competitive (price auction) State regulation Concentration in generation c 5 major generating companies occupy 78% of the market CR5 = .78 Number of power supply companies 26 MSi=3.8% Value chain integration Zero (all activities are decoupled) Consumers’ choice of power supply company Yes (for accepteda ): Via power supply company; Directly on the wholesale market (requires registration); Via SP No Model Competition Single buyer Market share of the modelb 70% 30% a : “accepted” are the companies with the monthly average consumption over 2.000 kWh (or bill over $400). They have an ability to decline the standard power supply and choose the supplier (data of the Energy Market Authority). b : market share is calculated basing on the volume of consumption, generated by the mentioned segment of the consumers: market and non-market participants . c : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share 4.4. Germany The pre-reform power sector of Germany was different from all other European countries – a state monopoly on the major activities was absent per se. The market included companies with various forms of ownership – both state and private, while vertically integrated structures prevailed. Due to this, the liberalization of the market was executed via two stages. First National Power Law established a competitive model, which in practice was not viable due to a lack of essential legislative bodies. That is why later development can be described as a parallel liberalization of all value chain elements and creation of fully functional competitive market model by 2011. Figure 4. Transformation of the Germany retail electricity market [27–29]. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 8 Currently, the retail market is functioning within the competitive model with non-concentrated ownership of the assets and end-consumers have an ability to choose a power supply company (Table 7). Table 7. Germany retail electricity market model  Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Price auction Concentration in generationa 5 major generators occupy 45% of the market CR5 = .49 Number of power supply companies Around 900 MSi~1% Value chain integration Generation + Distribution + Sales Transmission Consumers’ choice of power supply company Yes Model Competition a: CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share The current market includes a sufficient number of participants for supporting the competition: 4 big generating companies (EnBW, E.On, RWE, Vattenfall) and 1000+ small ones; 4 transmission lines operators (Ampirion, EnBW, Tennet, 50 Hertz Transmission); 890 distribution lines operators and 900+ power supply companies. Still, the German model differs from the traditional competition by the fact that generation, distribution and sales are integrated (via generators’ subsidiaries) and transmission is performed by independent operators. Innovative energy sectors (especially RES and green energy solution) have significant promotion for the development and transformation of the retail electricity market model. 4.5. Russian Federation The development of the Russian electricity market represents the transition from regulated monopoly, which constitutes a heritage of the GOELRO plan and later comprehensive plans for energy, economy, and cities in 1950-1990, implemented in the USSR, to a single buyer / competitive model (Figure 5). Now this model need to be transformed due to developed innovative solutions in the energy sector, but this process moves slower than that in many other countries. The government support the development of RES and other innovative energy niches in both zones with the retail electricity market and grid-off inhabited localities. For example, over the last years rules to support and implement domestic production of equipment for RES, payment for RES capacity and energy on the all retail electricity markets were established. But this activity meets a lot of obstacles, conflict of interests and lack of investment due to high risks and transactions costs. RAO “ES Vostoka”, “Gazprom” and other state and private companies install RES capacities or hybrid diesel-RES capacities in north regions and in grid-off inhabited localities . Some of the national parks (Kenozero and Russian Arctic in Arkhangelsk region, Basegi in Perm Krai, Tigirekskij in Altai Krai and many others) use solar panels for heating and lighting, and some other technologies of alternative energy. But at the same time majority of urban areas need significant modernization of energy supply systems, and Arctic region, Russia’s Far East and some other regions need infrastructure development. This is an opportunity to transform energy systems and retail electricity energy markets on the base of new technologies. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 9 Figure 5. Transformation of the Russian retail electricity market [32, 33]. Currently, the retail market operates in both the single buyer and competitive models with the dominance of the former (Table 8). Table 8. Russian retail electricity market model [32–34]. When electricity is bought from a guaranteeing supplier (1) When the electricity is bought from an independent power supply companya (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation State-regulated price Agreement-determined Concentration in generationd 8 major generators occupy 70% of the market CR5 = .64 Number of power supply companies Local power supplier at each territory (720 in total) MSi~.1% Value chain integration Generation + Sales Transmission + Distribution (UES’ subsidiaries) Consumers’ choice of power supply company Nob Yes Model Single buyer Competition Market share of the model 69% of overall consumptionc 93% 5% of overall consumptionc 7% a: this ability is available only to non-household consumers b: in some cases, households purchase electricity not from the guaranteeing supplier – for instance, when it was liquidated. But these cases are very rare c: the overall consumption of electricity in Russia is distributed in the following way: bulk consumers – 26%, guaranteeing suppliers – 69%, independent power supply companies – 5%. d: CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share Consumers, attributed to households, do not have an opportunity to choose the supplier of energy. They have to purchase it from the guaranteeing supplier, although at a regulated price, which is lower comparing to that one for industrial and other corporate consumers (so called “cross-subsidization”, when lower price for households is compensated by higher prices for other consumer categories). At the same time, corporate consumers are functioning within the competitive model when they are able MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 10 to choose their supplier under specific conditions. Large industrial consumers can participate on the wholesale market. In these cases, pricing is purely market-driven. 5. Conclusion The above-mentioned trends in the power energy industry determine the transformation of retail electricity markets around the globe. Moreover, the cornerstone is reaching flexibility, which has to provide an adequate reaction of the market to the changes in the dynamic environment. This process of the industry liberalization is heavily dependent on the individual characteristics of national power energy sectors and economy, the specificity of state energy and economic policies, level of development of the national institutional systems, and certain external factors including technological advancement and other institutional pressures. All considered markets move to the competition. But they have the different tracks and different levels of liberalization and concentration of generation and sales. A monopoly model is still in use especially in countries with large territories and grid-off locations (USA, Russia). The government and companies with state participants play an important role for the next transformation of retail electricity markets in Russia and in China. We may conclude that further transformation of retail electricity markets will have significant specifity in each country. Innovative technologies and solution will change participants and their strategies, structure and rules of retail electricity markets. Probably characteristics and the structure of these markets will be different and the considered comparative model for analysis need further development. Further research may focus on models of the electricity retail market in other countries, including identifying patterns in the development of these models and factors of influence. In doing so, the future studies can be based on both the framework proposed in the current article and a new expanded approach. It is of particular interest to consider the transformation of models of the electricity retail market in the studied countries under the current energy transition
In reaction to the environmental challenge, many firms are looking for the ways how to integrate sustainability into their operations, business models and strategies. Very often sustainable initiatives go beyond the boundaries of a focal firm engaging a wide variety of partners within the supply chain. In conditions of countries with institutional deficiencies and voids such as emerging economies, the task of sustainability integration is challenging as many critical conditions needed for sustainability development are missing. To understand how firms can integrate sustainability initiatives in their supply chains under the conditions of environmental uncertainty, this paper aims to investigate firm-level and supply chain drivers that stimulate sustainability implementation in Russian firms.
Acceleration of single‐ and multi‐charged oxygen ions in the perturbed Earth's magnetotail is investigated as the possible source of energetic heavy ions in the ring current. The numerical model is developed that allows evaluating the acceleration of oxygen ions O+‐O+8 in two possible scenarios of characteristic perturbations: (A) passage of multiple dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail; (B) passage of fronts followed by electromagnetic turbulence. It is shown that acceleration processes depend on particle charges as well as characteristic time scales of induced electric field variations. Maximum energies gained by oxygen ions correlate with values of their charges. Our simulations show that all kinds of single‐ and multiply charged heavy particles can be efficiently accelerated during multiple dipolarizations processes of the type (A) from initial energies 12 keV to maximum energies about several MeV. The gain of energies of heavy ions under the (B) scenario of magnetospheric perturbations is about 10% higher than in (A) scenario. The shapes of obtained in the model energy spectra were shown to be in agreement with experimental spectra in the range of L‐shells corresponding to ring/radiation belts. Therefore we conclude that the Earth's magnetotail can play the role of the depot where oxygen ions of both ionospheric and solar wind origin can be effectively accelerated during magnetic substorms to energies about several MeV and then populate the ring current and radiation belts of the Earth.
Purpose. This exploratory study aims, firstly, to analyse and categorise judgments on the ethical behaviour and actual behaviour of university educators. Secondly, the study addresses the impact of demographic data, such as gender, age, and role on these issues.
Approach. We utilised online survey data from academic employees of four leading universities in Russia, who are involved in teaching activities. In this study, we used correlation, regression and factor analyses.
Findings. Our results demonstrate that teaching while too distressed to be effective, is a common experience among university educators. By contrast, the rarest categories include teaching under the influence of drugs or alcohol. In addition, there is a high congruence between beliefs and respective behaviours. Females are typically more ethical in both judgements and actual behaviour. Factor analysis of behaviours yielded 16 interpretable factors.
Originality. This study contributed to the very limited research on the ethical aspects of higher education in Russia.
Practical implications. Firstly, the salary of the university educators should be adequate and competitive and match with their workload. Secondly, the work of the educators should be given recognition that may become their stimuli for improvement in university teaching. Thirdly, universities should develop ethics centres, which help faculty members and students to take the right decisions in situations involving questionable behaviour in the classroom. Lastly, the development of ethical codes, for faculty members and students, may become their guidance in situations with ethical dilemmas.
The main focus of the research is concentrated on the analysis of the teaching practices of the discipline “Intercultural Communication” and the methods of contextual learning. The main idea of the classes using the method of contextual learning is related to immersion of students through performance and visualization in the context of the studied micro and macro cultures. The purpose of in-class sessions with the use of the mentioned techniques is to give students the opportunity to practice the theoretical material and improve the skills of intercultural communication.
In this paper, we discuss fitness landscape evolution of permanent replicator systems applying the hypothesis that the specific time of evolutionary adaptation of system parameters is much slower than the time of internal evolutionary dynamics. In other words, we suppose that the extremal principle of Darwinian evolution based on Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection is valid for the steady-states of permanent replicator systems. Various cases illustrating this concept are considered.