26-28 Shabolovka ul,
Building 2, Room 2210-2221
E-commerce market development depends on the configuration of factors which both enable its further development, but might as well hinder its adoption by consumers. In particular, emerging markets provide numerous opportunities for e-commerce; however, they are also associated with specific barriers, limiting the potential for fully exploiting these opportunities. With an Internet audience of 93 mln people, the Russian emerging market represents the largest online audience in Europe, stimulating substantial e-commerce growth over the last decade. The main objective of this paper is to explore consumer perception of e-commerce adoption factors on two levels — the first are the macro-level factors, associated with the overall environment, institutional factors and trust; the second one is store-level factors, or factors associated with real consumer experiences. This multi-level approach reflects the complexity of consumer thinking about the market — both in terms of the evolving environment, offering opportunities to make decisions and make purchases; and real experience, where the factors are influencing particular consumer decisions and are weighted by consumers as pros and cons. Our study is based on a survey, using a sample of 3 387 respondents representing the consumer perspective. The findings reveal the structure of the driving and limiting factors, highlighting the core role of the trustworthiness and transparency of the e-commerce market players, delivery conditions and store-related risks.
This book discusses important topics for engineering and managing software startups, such as how technical and business aspects are related, which complications may arise and how they can be dealt with. It also addresses the use of scientific, engineering, and managerial approaches to successfully develop software products in startup companies.
The book covers a wide range of software startup phenomena, and includes the knowledge, skills, and capabilities required for startup product development; team capacity and team roles; technical debt; minimal viable products; startup metrics; common pitfalls and patterns observed; as well as lessons learned from startups in Finland, Norway, Brazil, Russia and USA. All results are based on empirical findings, and the claims are backed by evidence and concrete observations, measurements and experiments from qualitative and quantitative research, as is common in empirical software engineering.
The book helps entrepreneurs and practitioners to become aware of various phenomena, challenges, and practices that occur in real-world startups, and provides insights based on sound research methodologies presented in a simple and easy-to-read manner. It also allows students in business and engineering programs to learn about the important engineering concepts and technical building blocks of a software startup. It is also suitable for researchers at different levels in areas such as software and systems engineering, or information systems who are studying advanced topics related to software business.
The title of the book refers to the sociological survey, conducted by the "Public opinion" Fund in 2000. It is focused on the representation of Internet as a complex phenomenon in modern Russia. First, the Internet is considered as part of the media system that not only rapidly developing, but also significantly transforming the system as a whole. Second, it contains the analysis of main online markets in Russia. Thirdly, the Internet is analyzed in political, social and cultural contexts.
firstname.lastname@example.orgPrefaceWhat is Runet?There are at least three possible answers to this question. First, it is a segment ofthe Internet with content in Russian language. Second, it is a segment of the Internetassociated with the domain zone .RU. Third, it is the national—Russian—segmentof the Internet. The latter definition is the closest one to the idea of this book.However, the use of this elusive term will be presented with different layers ofmeaning in the following pages. Herein also lies the general concept of the book.Our contributors do not always agree with each other and sometimes expressnon-coinciding opinions. What they all certainly agree on, however, is that the Runetdeserves to be written about.In recent years, we hear more and more often that the so-called new media are infact not so new. Communication technologies, which were breathtaking a quarter ofa century ago, have become routines, even sometimes banal, and are neverthelessstill able to bring surprises. Today, for many people in the world the Internet is partof everyday life. And Russia is no exception.
Purpose – This articlepresents concepts and tools for developing place branding that protects places from overbranding, redundant promotion, and excessive tourism.
Methodology – The concept of a product-based place brand that reflects local ways of life and local identities was introduced was introduced. A combination of projective and typological methods was applied. Three focus groups composed of future place managers were held in three countries (N= 27) to develop place brand vocabularies − typologies of verbal characteristics of abstract places as products for internal users (residents).
Findings – In most cases, the place brand vocabularies were consistent and compatible within each abstract type and were unique (mutually exclusive) between the types. The vocabularies contained both detailed and more generalized elements. For each abstract place, short formulations of the general concept were found. Each brand vocabulary reflected the institutional, socio-psychological, cultural, historical, and geographic differences of the countries involved in the research.
Originality/value –A conceptual and methodological framework for creating place brand vocabularies is offered and it provides (1) close relationship between multiple brand attributes and their laconic expressions appropriate for communication and (2) high differentiation among brand attributes facilitates the recognition of branded places by target and non-target audiences. The framework is applicable for designing verbal attributes of place brands for specific places to avoid overbranding effects.
The present paper explores differences between perceiving consumer risk towards products under private labels (PPLs) versus products under manufacture brands (PMBs) on Russian metropolitan markets (St. Petersburg, namely). The research model (Model RFID) designed taking into account the direct and indirect influence on the said risks from a set of factors relevant to buying decisions. The theoretical and practical consistency of the model tested by relevant statistical tools. Some limitations of the research are presented, as well as recommendations for brand managers aimed at overcoming traditional and strong (though decreasing) PPL risks among Russian consumers. It has been hypothesized that as the private brand phenomenon continues to evolve, a further change in branding strategy should be greening private brands to make them more competitive. Directions and goals for future research concerning the relationship between private labels understood as sustainable brands formulated in brief.
The objective of this paper is to reveal the main directions of changes in Russian agribusiness caused by the food embargo through the lens of interfirm relationships.
Qualitative research in the form of focus group was conducted. The focus group consisted of 9 participants, representatives of the senior management of Russian agribusinesses.
Findings and implications
The study reveals that the Russian food embargo contributes to the development of interfirm relationships in the Russian agribusiness. Both retailers and manufacturers tend to use a relational approach and to develop interfirm relationships in order to build sustainable value chains and long-term relationships with partners. The resulting conclusions represent important changes in interfirm relationships between different actors of agribusiness: (1) retailers tend to interact with providers toward building sustainable value chains; (2) at the same time the criteria imposed by retailers to their suppliers are gradually changing. The possibility to change the supply conditions plays a significant role as does as the ability to operate in a turbulent environment.
Despite the large number of empirical studies exploring the impact of the embargo from different angles, there is still a lack of research concerning the consequences of embargoes in terms of interfirm relationships. This study extends the literature on the impact of embargoes and fulfills an identified need to study the consequences of embargoes in terms of developing interfirm relationships. This is the first Russian study to empirically examine the impact of the embargo on Russian firms’ interfirm relationships.
Increased attention to the growth of collaborative consumption (CC) is primarily connected to rapid digital transformation and spread of information technology, in both developed and emerging markets. CC affects most areas of everyday life, changing transportation methods (Uber), short-term rent (Airbnb), ways of entertainment (Youtube), tasks (TaskRabbit), and financing (Kickstarter). As the younger generation representatives grew up in the era of social network and cyberspace, СС seems essential for them. The main objective of this study is to identify the typology of young customers based on their attitude to CC adoption factors in emerging markets, and specifically, the Russian market. The paper attempts to bridge the theoretical gaps by analyzing and systematizing different approaches to understanding the phenomenon of CC, considering the factors that affect СС of different generations. Based on the results of an online survey of 2038 Russian users, CC adoption factors for the younger generation have been identified. Based on the results of the online survey of 2038 Russian CC services users, seven factors of the CC adoption by the younger generation: difficulty of CC adoption, risk of fraud, economic and environmental benefits, hygienic issues, ownership as a status symbol, CC as a modern lifestyle, social norms, and approval of the reference group; and five clusters of the CC users have been identified.
In the era of the Industry 4.0 Collaboration and the ubiquitous digitalization, a number of important trends in economic development arise. The mobile Internet and the Internet of things, VR/AR technologies, artificial intelligence, big data and machine learning, as well as the spread of automation in economics lead to impressive changes both in business processes and in consumer behavior. The growing business environment complexity and the acceleration of technological changes lead to the emergence of new forms of social interaction. In particular, sharing economy phenomena has become one of the main trends that influence customer behavior in many markets. The emergence of online service platforms allows individuals and businesses to share their unused or underutilized resources efficiently and expand the locus of value creation through platform ecosystems (Belk 2007, Grassmuck, 2012, de Reuver et al. 2018). Therefore, the sharing economy leads to an increase in the efficiency of economic and business activities (DuPuis, Rainwater, 2015). There is no doubt that “there is potential in this sector for creating new businesses that allocate value more fairly, that are more democratically organized, that reduce eco-footprints, and that can bring people together in new ways” (Schor, 2014, p.11).
This paper examines the development and significant contributions in a growing array of relevant publications spanning from 1946 to date and discusses future developments of the wellness tourism topic until the year 2095.
This perspective study traces down the wellness tourism evolution research by re-viewing and analysing an extant body of the relevant literature over the last 75 years. This paper builds a rigorous perspective review by examination of publications derived from several scientific domains, including tourism, medicine, economics, and social sciences.
As a result of this study, wellness tourism can be attributed as a profuse and proliferating research stream in the recent 75 years. Its relevance to significant aspects of life, such as health and also due to effects on human, social, and economic wellbeing, drives its proliferation. The paper anticipates the relevance and topicality of wellness tourism studies for academic research in the next 75 years.
This paper contributes to the theory by addressing the ambiguous nature of wellness tourism, recapping the debate on the most debated research questions, and revealing the perspectives for future research in this area.
Th e paper deals with the analysis of the existing approaches to brand orientation operationalization. Th is research aims to develop and test on empirical data the scale for refl ecting the level of brand orientation development in Russian companies. For this purpose, a mixed empirical study was conducted, consisting of the sequential use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Th e qualitative research was conducted on the basis of in-depth interviews with fi ft een representatives of Russian companies, and the quantitative research as an online survey – on the sample of 213 Russian companies. As a result, the scale of four groups of indicators measuring brand orientation in four directions was formed: the strategic importance of the brand for a company, the communication activity of a company, the analysis of the behavior of a company’s competitors and the use of internal branding in a company. A distinguishing feature of the resulting brand orientation scale lies in refl ecting and measuring both components of brand orientation, specifi cally, strategy and tactics. Th e proposed approach makes it possible to assess the level of the company’s processes development aimed at the formation of brand orientation, both from the point of view of building activities around the brand values and using the brand as a strategic asset, and the specifi c methods, tools and implementation methods. Th e obtained fi ndings can be used by Russian companies in the development of a business strategy and in studies on measuring the level of brand orientation, identifying the brand management features in terms of philosophical and behavioral approaches to brand orientation and their harmonious integration within an organization.
This paper scrutinises the advanced and renowned approach to HR management based on the paradigm of modern marketing, which has attained a recognition in academia. This approach was coined by Lings (2004) as internal market orientation. Until most recently, the paramount number of documented studies in the domain of internal market orientation have solely subjected small and medium firms or large corporations, whereas the context of the local state and municipal government organisations remains unexplored. This article addresses the internal market orientation suitability for governance organisations and sheds more light on its deployment possibilities for the sake of the more effective HR management in governmental organisations.
The modern consumer is overwhelmed with information. This leads to the fact that even conditionally loyal consumers do not find the time and desire to get acquainted with the offers of their favourite brand. Companies often use the outdated one-sided approach to communication with clients, using everything one or two communication channels. The authors analyze the actual ways of brand communication with the participants of loyalty programs and give recommendations to for their use, taking into account the cost and effectiveness of contact.
Digital transformation and rapid development of Internet technologies in the past decade have contributed to the emergence of an innovative business model of collaborative consumption [Sheresheva, Katsoni, 2019] and the spread of collaborative consumption services (CCS). This study attempts to identify the factors that influence consumers’ decision to use CCS, drawing on generation differences formulated on the basis of generation theory, with a particular focus on Russian consumers. The factors highlighted as a result of systematization of existing studies have been tested on the data of a quantitative study conducted in the form of an online survey with a sample of 3635 Russian users of CCS. An explanatory factor analysis (EFA) helps the authors construct the framework of factors that influence the decision of three generations of consumers (X, Y, and Z) to use CCS. The analysis of variance between the groups (ANOVA) highlights the generation differences that affect the decision to use the CCS by representatives of three generations. The identified generation features are of both theoretical significance, serving as a basis for further research, and practical value for business, mitigating the risks of introducing new CCS to the market, allowing for the needs of various generations of users.
The internet-retailing market is rapidly developing in the recent years, with an increasing number of consumers making online purchases. Growing market competition brings about greater variety of products and brands, growing purchasing power and the possibility to switch to competitors' products in the internet. All these make the research on a consumer journey in the internet-retailing market relevant. This article presents the study of a consumer journey in the Russia’s internet-retailing market. The results of the empirical research are based on the responses of 2567 consumers. To analyze the consumer journey, we use several quantitative methods: descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Tukey's a posteriori multiple comparison test. In the course of the analysis, we describe four stages of consumer journey, as well as the main factors of loyalty formation. We identify groups of consumers that differ in their intention for future purchases and loyalty level based on the analysis of purchases’ frequency. The findings may be useful for further research on a consumer journey in the Russian internet-retailing market.
The presented study examines the concepts of “environmental marketing” and “environmental product”. The study attempts to conceptualize these terms in the Russian language with allowance for the concept of sustainable development and the principles of the circular economy.
Aim. The study aims to develop the conceptual foundations of environmental marketing and its derivative — environmental product, laying the groundwork for future research in specifying the concepts of “environmental marketing” and “environmental product”.
Tasks. The authors examine the current state of environmental marketing and environmental product in Russia in terms of legislation and market practices; analyze the evolution of these concepts in foreign and Russian publications; systematize experience in this field; provide an original conceptualization of these terms; operationalize their key characteristics and features.
Methods. This study is based on qualitative empirical research using such methods as content analysis, synthesis, formalization, and systematization. The theoretical and methodological approach of the study is based on the works of foreign and Russian scientists in the field of environmental marketing, the “green” approach to the promotion of goods, and sustainable enterprise development.
Results. A research gap in the conceptualization of “environmental marketing” and “environmental product” in the Russian language is identified. The authors provide an original interpretation of these concepts with allowance for the principles of sustainable development and “green” promotion.
Conclusions. This study serves to elaborate on the scientific meaning of the concept of “environmental friendliness” applicable in marketing, changing the trend of the increasing number of products that fall under the definition of greenwashing. The published materials can be useful for environmental consultants, marketers, and representatives of legislative authorities in certifying products according to environmental standards.
The study aims to defi ne the role of various marketing practices of companies
operating in building broad-scope trust toward business in Russia. The results of
an online survey among generation Z consumers demonstrate that consumers give a
relatively higher rating to such aspects of marketing practices as product quality and
retailing, while pricing and advertising practices received the lowest rating. About half
of the respondents expressed their trust toward business. Besides, a positive evaluation
of pricing, product quality, and retailing contribute to the consumer trust toward
business, while after-sales service and advertising do not have a signifi cant impact on
broad-scope trust. The results do not diff er among consumers with diff erent sex,
income, and educational level, that indicates the homogeneity of the examines sample
of generation Z consumers. Extant results can be used to form a market policy
implemented at the level of both the state and self-regulatory professional associations,
which is aimed at improving the “lagging” aspects of marketing practice to improve
an economic and social well-being in the society.
Current monograph is devoted to the processes of transforming marketing activities under
the infl uence of technology changes, massive business environment digitalization and its implications
for consumer behavior. The focus of the monograph is made on evolution and innovations in marketing
models – both in Russia and abroad, as well as transition to the focus on consumer experience, value
co-creation within sharing economy practices, specifi cs of adapting strategic marketing to the era of
global resources and competences integration.
The monograph is targeting scholars, faculty, doctoral and master students, government and
business specialists, interested in marketing and marketing models innovations in the context of digital
transformation and diff usion of collaborative consumption.