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The paper examines Russian SMEs’ practices of responsible behavior directed at environmental problems. The research goal was to observe those practices and detect drivers stimulating environmental responsibility of Russian SMEs. The research method used in the study is an interview. A comfortable sample of 77 SMEs’ representatives was established using the snowball method. The paper used content-analysis for analyzing data from the interviews. A unit of count was a mention of environment-related responsible practices or activities, held by an SME following one of seven directions of social responsibility according to the ISO—26000:2010 “Environmental issues” (ISO 26000:2010 2012). From respondents’ answers social and environmental practices of SMEs were identified. It is argued that environmental practices of Russian SMEs are less numerous and diverse than social practices, and mostly constitute sporadic, one-time actions. An external environment can hardly be considered a driver of responsible behavior in case of Russian SMEs. In industries that presume environmentally harmful operations, a leading role remains with the state authorities that enact environmental protection legislation and industry-specific norms aimed at stimulating responsible behavior and performance. The study revealed cases of SMEs’ where personal choices of business owners and top-managers form a major determining factor of responsible behavior and its priorities. To promote SMEs’ environmental responsibility and projects, authors suggest to develop environmental education and training; to increase awareness of environmental responsibility among the country’s population and entrepreneurs; to adjust tax policies towards SMEs based on their resource consumption and polluting practices etc.
Purpose: This article investigates which definitions, indicators and instruments are used by the companies to identify and assess talented employee potential with successful performance on future pivotal positions.
Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected in 2020–2021 in 45 local and multinational companies in Russia with well-established talent management functions using in-depth interviews with human resource (HR) managers and consultants.
Findings: The study found a diversity of approaches to identifying and assessing talent potential with a predominantly contextual approach but so far with little focus on company’s strategic objectives. It was also found that companies assessed cultural (values) fit, social intelligence and impact, engagement and commitment as predictors of managerial and leadership potential of talented employees for future strategic jobs, in addition to characteristics of personal resources. The search for new complex and validated tools and methods of potential assessment under budget constraints show that companies have taken the path of experimentation.
Practical implications: The results of this research can inform talent and human resource managers how to identify and assess potential of talented employees for future needs of their organizations.
Originality/value: The paper contributes to the existing research in three ways. First, it offers a classification of approaches to potential assessment and explores the underlying dimensions of high-potential talent for future needs of a company. Second, it provides an overview of the current state of potential assessment in the companies in a non-western context. Third, it points out the challenges HR professionals face in implementing potential assessment for identifying talents in a new situation of unprecedented changes and uncertain future.
This study evaluates the effect of a compulsory military service reform conducted in 2007–2008 on the demand for higher education in Russia. The reform shortened the conscription term (from two years to one year), abolished several deferments, and significantly reduced the number of military departments in Russian universities, which provided an opportunity to avoid being conscripted as a private. The difference between the Russian reform and the armed forces reforms carried out in several European countries in the 1990s–2000s lies in the fact that compulsory military service was not abolished completely. Based on data compiled from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, we find that the men affected by the reform are, in general, approximately 12% less likely to graduate from higher education. The effect is more pronounced for men from cities and more advantaged family backgrounds. Army veterans exhibit steadily lower demand for higher education irrespective the reform.
This book presents a scientific view of fighting climate change in the economy of the future, the foundations of which are being set around the world. The authors substantiate the potential of Industry 4.0 in stimulating sustainable development in environmental protection and preservation of natural resources. This book considers the modern experience of fighting climate change based on possibilities of Industry 4.0 at the national scale in view of developed and developing countries with a special focus on Russia and at the corporate scale by the example of transnational corporations. It determines the future contribution of Industry 4.0 into development of responsible production and consumption, and compiles the “outlines” of “green” economy in Industry 4.0. It offers recommendations for control of climate change in Industry 4.0, and presents the authors’ vision of ecological responsibility in Industry 4.0 for implementing the sustainable development goals. This book will be of interest to academics and practitioners interested in climate change and development of Industry 4.0, as well contributing to a national economic policy for fighting climate change and corporate strategies of sustainable development in Industry 4.0.
This chapter discusses the international human resource management (IHRM) practices of Russian multinational enterprises (MNE). We conducted a qualitative research on the international HRM practices of 22 Russian MNEs, based on documentary analysis of data accessible from open sources. We contribute to the literature by showing how Russian MNEs transfer to their subsidiaries first and foremost such HRM practices that are deeply rooted in the Russian tradition of organizations: extensive internal training and social policy. This applies particularly to large Russian state-owned and privatised MNEs operating in oil and gas, energy and metallurgy sectors, whereas in newly established high-tech companies HRM issues receive limited attention in terms of both domestic and international operations.
In this paper, we develop and study a complex data-driven framework for human resource management enabling (i) academic talent recognition, (ii) researcher performance measurement, and (iii) renewable resource allocation maximizing the total output of a research unit. Suggested resource allocation guarantees the optimal output under strong economic assumptions: the agents are rational, collaborative and have no incentives to behave selfishly. In reality, however, agents often play strategically maximizing their own utilities, e.g., maximizing the resources assigned to them. This strategic behavior is typically mitigated by implementation of performance-driven or uniform resource allocation schemes. Next to the framework presentation, we address the cost of such mitigation.
This paper analyses migrants’ occupational mobility paths and factors in the Russian labor market. It deals with mobility of migrants from their last job in the country of origin to their first job in Russia, and from their first job in Russia to their current job in Russia. A mass survey of migrants, involving more than 8,500 participants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), was used as an empirical basis for this paper. The paper demonstrates that massive downward mobility of migrants upon entry into the labor market and limited upward mobility during their stay in the host country are typical for Russia. Education and fluency in Russian may reduce the risks of downward mobility during the transition from the last job in the country of origin to the first job in the Russian Federation. However,
these factors have a very limited impact on the economic integration of migrants. The regional labor market structure is also an important factor; the higher the share of people employed in labor-intensive fields of the service industry, the higher the likelihood of downward mobility of migrants. The results supported segmented assimilation and the existence of a special (migrant) labor market segment in Russia.
Emotions are linked to wide sets of action tendencies, and it can be difficult to predict which specific action tendency will be motivated or indulged in response to individual experiences of emotion. Building on a functional perspective of emotion, we investigate whether anger and shame connect to different behavioral intentions in dignity, face, and honor cultures. Using simple animations that showed perpetrators taking resources from victims, we conducted two studies across eleven countries investigating the extent to which participants expected victims to feel anger and shame, how they thought victims should respond to such violations, and how expectations of emotions were affected by enacted behavior. Across cultures, anger was associated with desires to reclaim resources or alert others to the violation. In face and honor cultures, but not dignity cultures, shame was associated with the desire for aggressive retaliation. However, we found that when victims indulged motivationally-relevant behavior, expected anger and shame were reduced, and satisfaction increased, in similar ways across cultures. Results suggest similarities and differences in expectations of how emotions functionally elicit behavioral responses across cultures.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of work values and socio-demographic characteristics upon the link between life satisfaction and job satisfaction.
The European Values Study (EVS) 2008–2009 is used as the dataset. The sample is limited to those who have paid jobs (28,653 cases).
Socio-demographic characteristics matter more than work values in explaining the effect of job satisfaction on life satisfaction. The association between life satisfaction and job satisfaction is stronger for higher educated individuals and those who are self-employed and weaker for women, married individuals, religious individuals and those who are younger. Extrinsic and intrinsic work values significantly influence life satisfaction independent of the level of job satisfaction.
It is important to pay attention to the working conditions and well-being of the core of the labour force, in other words, of those who are ready to invest more in their jobs. Also, special attention should be given to self-employment.
The paper compares the roles of work values and of socio-demographic characteristics as predictors of the association between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. It shows that the role of job in person's life depends largely on demographic factors, religiosity and socio-economic factors.
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a sudden global threat to business which raised the issue of organizational resilience — the ability not only to maintain productivity during a crisis, but also to ensure strategic development. Human resources play a key role in these processes, but the accumulated experience did not give an answer to the question of how to manage them in the current situation. The purpose of research is to study human resource management (HRM) practices in Russian companies in response to the coronavirus crisis and to determine their role in the development of an organization's ability to be resilient. The empirical research design is based on qualitative methodology. Based on the data of the Association of Managers People Investor 2020 competition project applications 18 cases were studied on the anti-crisis measures taken in the field of HRM. Using a comparative analysis of cases, both common and unique HRM practices, their characteristics and methods of implementation were identified. The findings were compared with a theoretical model on the impact of an organization's cognitive, behavioral and contextual capabilities in developing resilience (Lengnick-Hall et al., 2011). As a result, a list of HRM practices was formed, the implementation of which entails the development of the organizational capacity for resilience, which is necessary to successfully overcome the crisis and prepare for future shocks. The considered theoretical model was supplemented by a description of HRM practices, most of which contain a set of tools for their implementation. The importance of developing contextual conditions for resilience during a crisis is emphasized, among which the most important practice in a modern crisis is the creation of a safe internal environment for an organization through the introduction of well-being practices, which demonstrated the role of organizational ambidexterity in enhancing resilience. The main contribution of the research presented in the report to the scientific literature on organizational resilience is the definition of modern practices of human resource management in a situation of uncertainty with a focus on the overall business strategy of companies. From a practical point of view, the research results can be the basis for maintaining organizational resilience by identifying tools for implementing people management practices and enhancing the role of HRM.
Purpose. This paper aims at studying the role of informal personal ties as a source of resistance
of middle management to digital transformation on the example of logistics company converting into a
platform. Methodology and study design. Individual response of each middle manager is deeply rooted
in the context of a specific situation and therefore the context should be considered. The manager of
the project along with his team conducted the interviews with the 12 organizational members and gave
authors access to their written notes that had been collected throughout the interviews. Based on these
data the authors proceeded, applying purposeful sampling to selecting a total of six cases that provided
valuable insights into different forms of behavior of individual managers, the social dynamics in the
firm at the time of change, and how the resistance was overcome. The authors build their analysis on C.
Geertz‘s concept of thick description. Findings and implications for practice. The analytical view taken
of the presented cases of resistance shows how they are all uniquely interwoven with the events that
accompanied the digital transformation process. The middle management resistance may be associated
with the desire to maintain personal ties with customers, carriers, and colleagues, since the changes
necessary for the transition to a platform business change the roles and responsibilities and, therefore,
can threaten their networks of informal ties with internal and external stakeholders. Decisions taken
to accommodate resistance behavior rather than confront it, can lead to the creation of new networks.
Such investments may convert key personnel with high social standing among colleagues quickly into
This paper thematizes the change in employee’s social capital after management rebuilt the organization
towards a platform business. This paper thematizes a project for the digital transformation of a company: the
transition of a large logistics operator into a platform. The company embraced digital technologies in an attempt
to increase its efficiency and to win back market shares. The firm had regional business units throughout Russia’s
vast territory, which were accustomed to a very high degree of freedom in doing business. Managers established
preferential contacts with individual haulers which now had to follow enterprise-wide rules imposed by the
underlying information system. It is concluded that in case of such deep-rooted change as converting into a
platform it is unavoidable that social capital is connected with former procedures will be destroyed. Therefore,
the resistance to change is attributable to an immediate loss in social capital that the company fails to rebuild.
Based on in-depth interviews with employees (purposeful sampling), this paper presents 8 cases
of management resistance and draws conclusions on what other organizations can do to alleviate similar
situations. The sample case was analyzed against the framework that grounds in the work of French sociologist
Pierre Bourdieu. Unlike the cases in industrial firms in the 20th century that were driven by workers against
management, the resistance cases of the digitalization age are likely to stem from middle management that fear
losing their jobs or the reputation that is connected to their positions.
This book highlights interdisciplinary insights, latest research results, and technological trends in Business Intelligence and Modelling in fields such as: Business Intelligence, Business Transformation, Knowledge Dissemination & Implementation, Modeling for Logistics, Business Informatics, Business Model Innovation, Simulation Modelling, E-Business, Enterprise & Conceptual Modelling, etc. The book is divided into eight sections, grouping emerging marketing technologies together in a close examination of practices, problems and trends. The chapters have been written by researchers and practitioners that demonstrate a special orientation in Strategic Marketing and Business Intelligence. This volume shares their recent contributions to the field and showcases their exchange of insights.
Context is increasingly recognised as a critical explanatory variable in accounting for commonalities and differences in human resource management. Giving expression to it in research models holds the prospect of enhancing theory development, deepening our appreciation of embedded practices in diverse territories, and opening up new lines of enquiry. However, contextualisation presents a significant research challenge and increasingly, international academic research networks that bring together scholars from different countries in the co-production of knowledge represent a key approach to rising to this challenge. This volume documents aspects of the development of one such network, namely the Cranet Network on International Human Resource Management, and presents a series of recent contributions from the network. The chapters highlight, inter alia, the limits to convergence in human resource management as a result of contextual determinism, the role of institutional actors, markets, and work regulation in accounting for variations in practices, the contextual specificities and dynamics at play in transition economies, along with key methodological challenges that arise when seeking to build cumulative comparative knowledge via network collaborations of this nature.