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The paper examines Russian SMEs’ practices of responsible behavior directed at environmental problems. The research goal was to observe those practices and detect drivers stimulating environmental responsibility of Russian SMEs. The research method used in the study is an interview. A comfortable sample of 77 SMEs’ representatives was established using the snowball method. The paper used content-analysis for analyzing data from the interviews. A unit of count was a mention of environment-related responsible practices or activities, held by an SME following one of seven directions of social responsibility according to the ISO—26000:2010 “Environmental issues” (ISO 26000:2010 2012). From respondents’ answers social and environmental practices of SMEs were identified. It is argued that environmental practices of Russian SMEs are less numerous and diverse than social practices, and mostly constitute sporadic, one-time actions. An external environment can hardly be considered a driver of responsible behavior in case of Russian SMEs. In industries that presume environmentally harmful operations, a leading role remains with the state authorities that enact environmental protection legislation and industry-specific norms aimed at stimulating responsible behavior and performance. The study revealed cases of SMEs’ where personal choices of business owners and top-managers form a major determining factor of responsible behavior and its priorities. To promote SMEs’ environmental responsibility and projects, authors suggest to develop environmental education and training; to increase awareness of environmental responsibility among the country’s population and entrepreneurs; to adjust tax policies towards SMEs based on their resource consumption and polluting practices etc.
Abstract Purpose – This paper outlines the current and future influence of digitalization on corporate parenting styles of multinational corporations. Design/methodology/approach – We employed conceptual modeling in this study. Findings – We identified five types of corporate parenting styles (Hypnos, Cronus, Rhea, Zeus, and Athena). The overall impact of digitalization on corporate parenting styles is related to new, formidable opportunities for decreasing costs and increasing the efficiency of the intra-corporate transfer of knowledge and talent. Furthermore, digitalization leads to greater tightness in subsidiaries’ performance targets, and greater intensity of control over subsidiaries’ activities, to lower degrees of subsidiary autonomy and a lower level of trust between the corporate headquarters (CHQ) and subsidiary managers. These effects endanger the existence of two corporate parenting styles (Hypnos and Athena) and significant changes for other three corporate parenting styles. Practical implications Digitalization may lead to more homogeneous corporations, with the lower variety of corporate parenting styles and the greater centralization of decision-making in corporate and regional headquarters and stronger control on operations and performance of subsidiaries. Increased opportunities of horizontal value transfer (knowledge) within the corporation will present an additional competitive advantage of subsidiaries of multinational corporations. The increased ability and willingness of corporate and regional headquarters of value appropriation from subsidiaries in different forms (profit, revenues, knowledge, and talent) will force subsidiaries to use that additional competitive advantage to become more aggressive competitors in local and global markets.
The five articles included in this collection provide novel insights from four different countries (South Africa, Nigeria, South Korea, and the US) on issues related to the nature, scope, and consequences of law and/or ethics violation in healthcare.
Purpose. This exploratory study aims, firstly, to analyse and categorise judgments on the ethical behaviour and actual behaviour of university educators. Secondly, the study addresses the impact of demographic data, such as gender, age, and role on these issues.
Approach. We utilised online survey data from academic employees of four leading universities in Russia, who are involved in teaching activities. In this study, we used correlation, regression and factor analyses.
Findings. Our results demonstrate that teaching while too distressed to be effective, is a common experience among university educators. By contrast, the rarest categories include teaching under the influence of drugs or alcohol. In addition, there is a high congruence between beliefs and respective behaviours. Females are typically more ethical in both judgements and actual behaviour. Factor analysis of behaviours yielded 16 interpretable factors.
Originality. This study contributed to the very limited research on the ethical aspects of higher education in Russia.
Practical implications. Firstly, the salary of the university educators should be adequate and competitive and match with their workload. Secondly, the work of the educators should be given recognition that may become their stimuli for improvement in university teaching. Thirdly, universities should develop ethics centres, which help faculty members and students to take the right decisions in situations involving questionable behaviour in the classroom. Lastly, the development of ethical codes, for faculty members and students, may become their guidance in situations with ethical dilemmas.
Building on the debate on engaged scholarship in project studies, this article aims to explore the extent and potential of practitioner involvement in research on projects and thereby characterise the evolution of the field through the lens of engaged scholarship. We conduct a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of 6584 articles published on projects between 1964 and 2017 to capture the volume and citation impact of publications featuring practitioner involvement in comparison to purely academic publications. The analysis identifies distinct research production patterns, allowing us to delineate and characterise three evolutionary periods in project studies: projects as an execution methodology (1964-1989), projects as an organisational concept (1990-2001), and projects as a theoretical framework (from 2002). In this way, the article enriches the ongoing debate about engaged scholarship in project studies, and discusses the endemic challenges, as well as unused potential, of actively involving practitioners in the production of research on projects.
This paper discusses the strategic actions taken by the Russian subsidiaries of two large multinational information technology (IT) corporations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These companies faced explosive growth in local demand for hardware and IT solutions due to the increased digitalization of business and greater emphasis on remote working during the lockdown. The management of the Russian subsidiaries demonstrated great ingenuity in redesigning business processes and acquiring additional resources to satisfy the growing demand. As a result, the performance of the Russian subsidiaries radically improved during 2020; however, some of the implemented strategic actions were not welcomed by the corporate headquarters as they required amendment of the existing subsidiary mandates.
Purpose – This paper details the actions of the Russian subsidiary of a multinational IT company, during the COVID–19 pandemic, aimed towards the exploration and exploitation of unexpected business opportunities. It depicts the strategic and tactical actions of the subsidiary and corporate initiatives during the pandemic, revealing tensions between the subsidiary and its corporate parent on implementation of each’s initiatives.
Design/Methodology/Approach – A case study is presented, based on action research, using internal documents from the company under consideration, participation in various working meetings, meetings with customers, and interviews with subsidiary management.
Findings – The strategic actions implemented by the subsidiary during the pandemic exemplify strategic agility, i.e. a set of activities carried out by a company that create value in a turbulent and unpredictable environment which in turn require systematic variations in specific processes, products and structures. Some of those variations included the unauthorized amendment of internal corporate rules, leading to tensions between the subsidiary and parent company. This case illustrates that such parent-subsidiary tensions are an inevitable element of achieving agility at the subsidiary level, especially during rapid and unpredictable changes in the business environment.
Research limitations/implications – This study presents the flow of events in one multinational corporation subsidiary. However, we speculate that similar situations (subsidiary actions exploiting emergent business opportunities and which have been restricted by rigid internal corporate rules and regulations and low receptivity from corporate headquarters) occurred in many multinational corporation subsidiaries, aiming to explore and exploit nascent business opportunities in local markets during the pandemic.
Practical implications – The study confirms the necessity for the review of the functioning of the corporate immune system of large multinational corporations to allow more subsidiary initiatives to flourish than before the pandemic.
Originality – The paper presents a case of strategic agility at subsidiary level during the pandemic. It also uncovers the black-boxing managerial decision-making processes in headquarters-subsidiary relations during the extreme turbulence of business environment.
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the multidimensional impacts
on organizational management it brings inspired us to call for papers for this
special issue. In effect, the issue presents a collection of full-length articles
and research notes devoted to the experience of enterprises during the first
year of the COVID-19 pandemic in various East European countries (Poland,
Hungary, the Czech Republic, Russia, Armenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina).
The studies cover the presentation of tendencies and trends in particular sectors
(by Kaźmierska-Jóźwiak, Sekuła, and Sacha), in-depth analyses of a pair of
similar subsidiaries of multinational companies (by Shchetinin and Lapshin)
and of a sample of small and medium size enterprises (by Gittins, Freész and
Huszák), examinations of the impact of the pandemic on the HR management
of different types of enterprises in the national economy (by Bešić and Rahimić
and by Beglaryan, Gabrielyan and Shakhmuradyan), the exploration of different managers’ anticipations and reactions to the crisis situation (by Čejka and Sadílek and by Obłój, Ciszewska-Mlinarič, Wąsowska, Wójcik, and Milancej).
There is currently the growing interest of business in the problem of shorten the total length of the construction project life cycle. At the same time, the number of dispersed teams increased. The level of technology development, including BIM, allows AEC teams to collaborate effectively. Due to environment turbulence and uncertainty, developers (customers) need to have an opportunity to react on market tendencies during the project execution and implement changes in the project. The group of adaptive PM approaches (agile, hybrid) may help to solve this problem. The paper presents the comparison of typical construction project design phase and new product development. The system hybrid project management approach with mix of agile and waterfall project management is proposed.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to design a framework for asset data management in power companies. The authors consider asset data management from a strategic perspective, linking operational-level data with corporate strategy and taking into account the organizational context and stakeholder expectations. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a multiple case study based on a literature review and three series of in-depth interviews with experts from three Russian electric power companies.
Findings – The main challenge in asset data management for electric power companies is the increasing amount and complexity of asset data, which is frequently incomplete or inaccurately collected, hard to translate to managerial language, focused primarily on the operational level. Such fragmented approach negatively affects strategic decision-making. The proposed framework introduces a holistic approach, provides context and accountability for decision-making and attributes data flows, roles and responsibilities to different management levels.
Research limitations/implications – The limitations of our study lie in the exploratory nature of case study research and limited generalization of the observed cases. However, the authors used multiple sources of evidence to ensure validity and generalization of the results. This article is a first step toward further understanding of the issues of transformation in power companies and other asset intensive businesses. Originality/value – The novelty of the framework lies in the scope, focus and detailed treatment of asset data management in electric power companies.
This book presents a scientific view of fighting climate change in the economy of the future, the foundations of which are being set around the world. The authors substantiate the potential of Industry 4.0 in stimulating sustainable development in environmental protection and preservation of natural resources. This book considers the modern experience of fighting climate change based on possibilities of Industry 4.0 at the national scale in view of developed and developing countries with a special focus on Russia and at the corporate scale by the example of transnational corporations. It determines the future contribution of Industry 4.0 into development of responsible production and consumption, and compiles the “outlines” of “green” economy in Industry 4.0. It offers recommendations for control of climate change in Industry 4.0, and presents the authors’ vision of ecological responsibility in Industry 4.0 for implementing the sustainable development goals. This book will be of interest to academics and practitioners interested in climate change and development of Industry 4.0, as well contributing to a national economic policy for fighting climate change and corporate strategies of sustainable development in Industry 4.0.
This study aims to identify effective responses to cyber crime in the insurance industry. Survey responses from Moscow-based employees holding key positions in the leading insurance companies have been collected. The study analyses awareness of, attitudes to, and approaches to cyber security, as well as the incidence and impact of breaches or attacks. According to the experts, complying with laws or regulations and preventing fraud or theft are the main reasons for investing in cyber security. Phishing, viruses, and unauthorised use of computers, networks or servers by staff are the most widely spread threats to cyber security. Russian insurers often undertake additional staff training or change their policies in response to cyber breaches. Strategic recommendations were elaborated for industry professionals.
Integration of closed loop (CL) principles into supply chain management plays an important role for business and society. The CL supply chain can serve as a good example of an environmentally friendly and sustainable solution since it assumes reduction of waste and its further usage in production. Hence, the notion of CL supply chain is premised on the “design, control, and operation of a system to maximize value creation over the entire life cycle of a product with dynamic recovery of value from different types and volumes of returns over time” (Guide and Wassenhove, 2009). In practice, a successful integration of CL principles depends on many contextual factors. The goal of this study is to identify the factors that support and discourage CL supply chain innovations in emerging markets. The study employs the institutional theory as a theoretical background and an in-depth case analysis of a Russian waste management company as empirical evidence. The study shows that cooperation with an experienced and legitimate partner might become a driver of CL initiative introduction; while a low level of knowledge and trust might become a serious impediment, so investment in knowledge dissemination and reputation building are crucial in emerging market.
Globally and in the U.S. in particular, pharmaceutical fraud account for a large number out of all crimes in healthcare, which result into severe costs to the society. The Academy of Managed Care Pharmacists (2019) estimate that pharmacy fraud is 1% of costs, therefore estimating that pharmacy fraud costs at $3.5 billion, given that pharmacy costs are $358 billion (Statista, 2021).
This exploratory study aims to demonstrate a fraudster’s profile as well as to estimate average consequences in terms of costs and identify the loss predictors’ hierarchy in the pharmaceutical industry in the U.S.
Materials and methods
Data from the Corporate Prosecution Registry and mixed-effects models are utilized for this purpose. The dataset covers years 2001-2020 and 75 cases, falling into one of the following broad sub-categories: misbranding, counterfeit, off label use of drugs, off-label use of drugs / deceptive marketing; violation of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
The main factors positively associated with loss due to pharmaceutical fraud are (i) duration of (ii) the scheme and scheme being executed at a U.S. public company. Surprisingly, presence of collusion negatively and significantly effects the cost. Potential factors include (a) principal perpetrator being a white American and/or male, and (b) number of employees at individual and organizational level respectively.
This study empirically justifies considering loss, due to pharmaceutical fraud, from a multi-level perspective. Identified profiles of a typical fraudster helped to elaborate on specific practical recommendations aimed at pharmaceutical fraud prevention in the U.S.
This paper presents a public procurement transaction cost evaluation using a large-scale survey of procurers and suppliers. The study was conducted in Russia in 2017. The results of the survey confirmed that the lower the contract value, the more expensive the procurement procedure. An empirical analysis of factors impacting public procurement cost evaluation also revealed considerable differences between respondents with and without experience in complex procurement procedures. The paper makes an important contribution to the academic literature by elaborating a new approach to public procurement cost evaluation, as well as providing an empirical evaluation of direct transaction costs of public procurement.
The survey-based approach to the evaluation of public procurement costs described in this paper can be used by other countries and regions. Although the average overall transaction costs for public procurements in the case study country amounted to about 1% of the total value of concluded contracts, this figure was 6.6% to 8.1% for small purchases. This figure exceeds the budget saving from competitive procurement and calls for a need to simplify regulations around smaller procurements. This analysis of the procurement costs on Russian data will allow other developing countries to avoid the mistakes made in Russia, as well providing a way to realistically and affordably measure their procurement transaction costs.
Written by many of the key influencers at the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), the book focuses on advancing sustainable development into education, research and partnerships at higher education institutions and, specifically, at business schools, with the purpose of educating responsible leaders for today and tomorrow.
The book serves as a concrete source of inspiration for universities and other stakeholders in higher education on structures, processes and content for how to advance responsible management education and sustainable development. It articulates the importance of key themes connected with the circular economy, gender equality, anti-corruption, business for peace, anti-poverty and other topics that are related to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The book emphasizes the significance of local-global interaction, drawing on local action at management schools in combination with global knowledge exchange across the PRME community. In addition, the book clearly demonstrates the background, key milestones and successful achievements of PRME as a global movement by management schools in collaboration with a broader community of higher education professionals. It exemplifies action in various local geographies in PRME Chapters, PRME Working Groups and the PRME Champions work to advance responsible management education. The authors of the book are all globally experienced deans, professors, educators and students with a global outlook, who are united to advance responsible management education locally and globally.
The book will be invaluable reading for university leaders, educators, business school deans and students wanting to understand and embed responsible management education approaches across their institutions and curricula.
There is growing awareness among leading responsible management scholars and practitioners that understanding global wicked problems is insufficient in effecting lasting engagement and changed behaviors. Research indicates that to impact behavior, the mindset has to shift, which leaves the question: How do you shift a mindset?
This book guides educators and practitioners, their students and colleagues for taking action on finding urgent solutions for the grand challenges stated in the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals. A Sustainability Mindset is a way of thinking and being that results from a broad understanding of the ecosystem, from social sensitivity, and an introspective focus on our personal values and higher self, which finds its expression in actions for the greater good. By promoting a mindset shift, educators in very diverse contexts are laying the foundation for a resilient future. The book presents a collection of over 150 student voices depicting a transformative experience and shift in their mindset. Seventeen educator/student teams of contributing authors from across five continents describe in the activity that prompted those students’ reflections, and the conceptual frameworks that played a role in the selection of the learning goals and activities.
The book is written with academic and corporate educators, reflective practitioners, consultants, coaches, trainers and students in mind, and is invaluable in guiding the process of developing a sustainability mindset amongst participants in the training process.
The aim of this study is to depict the performance of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of multinational corporations during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a unique handcrafted database of financial reports from 259 subsidiaries for 2019 and 2020, we retraced three indicators of business robustness: the dynamics of revenues, positive profitability, and the level of financial solvency. Most of the studied subsidiaries (85%) were able to withstand the crisis and maintain satisfactory financial solvency. Revenues decreased in 2020 to 40% of the studied subsidiaries, and the share of loss-making subsidiaries reached 31%. However, more than 40% of the studied subsidiaries achieved both an increase in revenues and positive profitability of sales in 2020. In this respect we may assess the level of “ownership advantage” of multinational corporations regarding assisting their subsidiaries to achieve different elements of business robustness during the pandemic.