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The purpose of this paper is to research multicriteria decision-making optimisation problems of logistics systems and supply chains considering conditions of uncertainty. The article presents an approach that allows adapting the procedures of multicriteria optimisation to the format of conditions of uncertainty. This approach is relevant for the situation when a manager does not have reliable estimates for the probability of random events and cannot use decision-making methods under risk conditions. The study proposes the synthesis of optimisation procedures, including the format of the multiple criteria decision-making theory and the format of procedures developed in the theory of decision-making in conditions of uncertainty. The specifics of this approach and algorithm for optimising such solutions are presented according to the inventory management problem.
The report presents an approach to the filtration of alternatives when choosing a counterparty for horizontal cooperation based on multiple criteria. Filtration procedures precede the optimization procedures for multi-criteria decisions. The filtration is based on the theory of binary relations and preserves only alternatives-majorants in relation to a strict order according to a given criterion. Presented approach eliminates ineffective alternatives without significant quality degradation of the resulting choice. These procedures are implemented in a numerical example for the following generalized selection criteria: scalar; ideal point; geometric mean.
The proposed monograph considers optimization models for managing limited resources in logistics systems. Such systems are primarily applied by industrial, transport and trade companies, including wholesalers.
As a rule, the efficiency of these companies depends in most cases on how rational the limited resources are used. Among the resources are the following: production assets, labor force, manufacturing equipment, vehicles, etc. The work studies various approaches to manage such resources when the situation is quite stable or even well-known (the characteristics of the situation can be clearly described) and, on the contrary, when some parameters of model are not specified exactly. In the first case, deterministic models are in focus of research, in the second one, stochastic models are offered. Nevertheless, the authors of the work evaluate the stability of functionality and solution structure in the models if various risk events occur.
The monograph is intended to senior bachelor’s degree students, master's degree students and postgraduates specialized in "Management" and "Logistics" as well as to the specialists interested in logistics systems design.
Article presents an analysis of the efficiency of the joint use of vehicles of different types in the supply of goods for the EOQ-model considering one product nomenclature and the lease of storage locations. The analysis takes into account factors important for practical applications: 1) cargo capacity of vehicles; 2) the time value of money; 3) offered discounts on the cost of joint deliveries. The admissible levels of discounts for the efficiency of joint deliveries are assessed. For any set of vehicles, a necessary and sufficient condition (with respect to such a discount) has been established, under which combined deliveries will be more effective than deliveries by one vehicle with the best efficiency.
The report examines the problems of managing return flows, taking into account the modern requirements of urban ecosystems and the companies’ de-velopment strategies. Various approaches to multicriteria optimization of the config-uration of the return flow logistics network to find a balance between economic effi-ciency and sustainability of a city are discussed
The article discusses special issues related to the optimization of the choice of a counterparty according to many criteria for horizontal cooperation problems that may arise in practice when analyzing models of transport provision of supplies. The structure and possibilities of formalizing tasks of this type are analyzed. It is shown that the approaches and methods for making multicriteria decisions developed in theory will make it possible in the format of such problems to really ensure the choice (as the best / optimal solution) of those analyzed alternatives that may be of interest to a decision-maker (DM) if they are Pareto optimal. In this case we recommend to take into account existing theoretical methods and mathematical tools that effectively allow manager to adapt the choice to the DM’s preferences. The illustrations are given using generalized selection criteria: scalar, geometric mean, ideal point and Hurwitz criterion for various positions of decision makers' preferences
Performance impacts of ordering and production control policies in the presence of capacity disruptions are studied on the real-life example of a retail supply chain with product perishability considerations. Constraints on product perishability typically result in reductions in safety stock and increases in transportation frequency. Consideration of the production capacity disruption risks may lead to safety stock increases. This trade-off is approached with the help of a simulation model that is used to compare supply chain performance impacts with regard to coordinated and non-coordinated ordering and production control policies. Real data of a fast moving consumer goods company is used to perform simulations and to derive novel managerial insights and practical recommendations on inventory, on-time delivery and service level control. In particular, for the first time, the effect of ‘postponed redundancy’ has been observed. Moreover, a coordinated production–ordering contingency policy in the supply chain within and after the disruption period has been developed and tested to reduce the negative impacts of the ‘postponed redundancy’. The lessons learned from experiments provide evidence that a coordinated policy is advantageous for inventory dynamics stabilization, improvement in on-time delivery, and variation reduction in customer service level.
Among innovative e-learning approaches in the sphere of digital economy and logistics, there is a special focus on artificial intelligence technologies (AI), which, due to their capacity and efficiency in usage, have a significant potential for the development and to some extent are optimal IT tools. The objective of a study is to define an optimum IT software for the organization of massive open online courses (MOOC) in digital economy and digital logistics in the framework of training economics students. Authors have conducted a survey in terms of In-ternet use for education and self-education. The sampling volume makes up 1 600 respondents in at least 80 regions of the Russian Federation. The respondents are divided into four age groups: 18-24 years old, 25-39 years old, 40-54 years old, 55 years old and older. The study uses data from the survey conducted by KMDA.PRO related to digital transformation of 700 representatives from more than 300 Russian companies out of 15 industries and the results of in-depth in-terviews of four categories of employees: top managers, heads of units, mid-level managers and other employees. The study results testify to the need for trans-forming e-learning approaches, taking into account the new labor market re-quirements for training specialists in digital logistics and gaining respective skills such as an active training, coordination, negotiation skills, teaching others, infor-mation literacy, customer focus, oral communication, ability to solve complex is-sues, operational literacy, time management. The use of the research results in practice is possible in case of the organization of online training courses for eco-nomics students in the framework of the higher educational system
The ripple effect refers to structural dynamics and describes a downstream propagation of the downscaling in demand fulfilment in the supply chain (SC) as a result of a severe disruption. The bullwhip effect refers to operational dynamics and amplifies in the upstream direction as ordering oscillations. Being interested in uncovering if the ripple effect can be a driver of the bullwhip effect, we performed a simulation-based study to investigate the interrelations of the structural and operational dynamics in the SC. The results advance our knowledge about both ripple and bullwhip effects and reveal, for the first time, that the ripple effect can be a bullwhip-effect driver, while the latter can be launched by a severe disruption even in the downstream direction. The findings show that the ripple effect influences the bullwhip effect through backlog accumulation over the disruption time as a consequence of non-coordinated ordering and production planning policies. To cope with this effect, a contingent production-inventory control policy is proposed that provides results in favour of information coordination in SC disruption management to mitigate both ripple and bullwhip effects. The SC managers need to take into account the risk of bullwhip effect during the capacity disruption and recovery periods.
The purpose of the work is to draw attention to the possibility of improving the quality of decision-making in the context of the transition to a digital economy. The problem is related to the optimization of transportation supply according to the multi-criteria choice of the best route. The paper discusses aspects of the elimination of undesirable phenomenon related to the inconsistency of the nature of the indicators of particular criteria. The study proposes to eliminate it by the following methods:
1) based on the transition to generalized data;
2) based on a synthesis of analytical hierarchy processes and traditional selection criteria.
The research shows that the transition to generalized data can lead to other undesirable aspects of inadequate choice. It may turn out that one of the particular criteria will not affect the best choice in the format of the minimax selection criterion procedures. In such situations it is considered to use a synthesis of traditional selection criteria procedures with analytical hierarchy processes, in which these undesirable situations do not arise.
A large-scale project is being implemented in Russia to introduce a smart system to account for electricity consumption. Creating a system for rapid restoration of electricity meters should become an obligatory part of the range of services provided to consumers. Operational restoration of electricity meters should also be carried out during the implementation period. It is necessary to determine a nonexcessive number of personnel that will be able to provide both installation of electric meters at a given time and their prompt recovery. The organization of work of the personnel significantly affects its necessary number. In this paper, the task of determining the number of employees is solved under the assumption that the personnel are divided into those who are involved in the installation of electricity meters and those who are responsible for recovery. This division is not carried out at the start, but is varied as the number of electric meters operating in the system increases. Formulas are obtained for calculating the number of personnel that will allow the project to be completed on time. Using these formulas, it can be determined how to change the number of personnel involved in the installation of electricity meters and engaged in restoration during the project implementation period.
In the development of programs for delivering crude oil to Southern Europe, it is necessary to determine the trends in crude oil delivery and production and to analyze the capabilities of the crude oil transportation system. The global trend towards reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy has led to a significant reduction in the number of refineries in Europe. The purpose of this paper was to determine the trends in oil production and delivery and to assess the capacity of the oil transportation systems in Southern Europe. The allocation of crude oil production and delivery facilities in Southern European countries from 2005 to 2015 was analyzed using quantitative evaluation methodology. Changes in European crude oil production and delivery were highlighted. The transport infrastructure potential of oil supplies to consumers and oil production was studied. The study established that from 2013 to 2015, the oil supply to the refineries increased and generated additional stress on the transportation infrastructure. However, European infrastructure capacities had the necessary reserves to operate for the next several years without additional investment. In this paper, aggregate numbers for oil production and delivery are used. In addition, different refineries process different oil types. Nevertheless, the approach designed in this study can be applied to study the supply of certain oil types on the market.
In the next few years, a large-scale project on implementation of an intelligent system for electric power metering should be carried out in Russia. The replacement of electric meters for individual customers is a necessary part of this project. The number of people needed to carry out the project within the specified period has to be found. It should be taken into account than electric meters, like any electrical equipment, are subject to failure. If a system for their prompt restoration is not developed, the incorporation of an intelligent system of electric power metering will have no effect. The classical queuing analysis based on calculation of the probabilities of a system being in different states can hardly be used because of the problem’s dimensionality. Methods of simulation describe specific cases. They do not provide solution of the problem without analytically determined approximations of the number of people needed. This paper considers the solution of the problem of determining the number of personnel needed for the program of replacing electric meters to be done in proper time, taking into account the that they need to be restored promptly. The solution has been obtained based on the simulations of the incorporation of an intelligent system of electric power metering using the method of average dynamics. An example of calculations of the necessary number of employees in MathCAD PRIME 4.0 has been considered. The suggested method provides almost exact results because of the large number of replaced electric meters.
Trends in the digitalization of business open up opportunities for the use of fundamental approaches to the development of enterprise architecture in the creation of appropriate methodologies. The article discusses the approach to the use of adapted Zachman framework for enterprise architecture as a basis for the systematization and structuring of the industry methodology of integrated supply chain planning based on SCOR model. A practical example of using the proposed approach for description of one of the target processes - tactical supply chain planning is considered.
It is concluded that taking into account the ongoing trend in the digitalization of business, including in the field of integrated supply chain planning, the use of an adapted Zachman framework for enterprise architecture allows solving an important scientific and economic problem of systematization and structuring of industry methodologies.
For multi-criteria decisions on choosing counterparty for horizontal cooperation, the article proposes an approach to filtering alternatives before the multucriteria optimization procedures. Filtration is based on the theory of binary relations and is aimed to keep only those alternatives that are majorants of strict order according to a certain particular criterion. The presented filtering procedures allows significant reduction of the number of considered alternatives without decline in quality of the chosen solutions. These procedures are illustrated in the format of the following generalized selection criteria: scalar; ideal point; geometric mean.
The aim is to make it more accessible to apply the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in strategic consulting. A method has been found for highly accurate calculation of the priorities of strategic objectives using the table of paired comparisons of their significance. A compact program with a friendly interface has been developed, in which this method is implemented. The results are focused primarily on consultants and analysts who build strategies and implement a balanced scorecard.
It is shown that the concept of «Digital Twin» is becoming an increasingly popular method of solving key problems in supply chain management, in particular, when monitoring logistics business processes. A detailed analysis of literary sources and Internet resources on the subject of digital twins is carried out. The basic terminology, the terms of «Digital Twin» and of similar concepts, such as «digital footprint», «digital shadow», «digital thread», are given.
The basic properties (characteristics) of digital twins and the advantages obtained by using this concept in supply chains are considered. The methodological aspects of the Digital Twin concept are analyzed both in the academic environment and in the context of the practice of large companies.
It is shown that the problem of monitoring consumer goods can be effectively solved us ing digital counterparts of the FMCG sector supply chains.
The main variants of the Supply Chain Digital Twin «design» are presented. An FMCG supply chain monitoring system using convergence of digital twins of products and processes in the chain is proposed. An example of the construction of a monitoring system in the supply chain of GHIOTTONE consumer goods using the digital ounterparts of the main processes represented by the SCOR model is considered.
The article is devoted to the preparation for the digital transformation of the international air cargo terminal, carried out in order to increase the volume of air cargo and mail processed at the airport at the terminal complex. The process of digital transformation is a process of reengineering. It affects all the functional components of the company, without exception, and, first of all, management. It is important to determine in advance what threats the new management brings to the company, what competitive advantages the terminal can potentially gain as a result of digital transformation, what can serve as the basis for successful reengineering, and what management, technological, and technical issues need to be paid special attention to. The article discusses the technological and organizational aspects of the cargo airport, which can serve as a potential basis for successful transformation. The authors discuss in detail the new key business processes of digital service management at the terminal of companies in the Agency and forwarding environment. We consider options for building these processes based on the integration of services of the digital platform of the cargo terminal, the principles of implementing Omni-channel digital management of the processes of organizing air cargo transportation at an international airport
The article examines the synchromodal transportation system with parallel cargo
flows provided by different modes. The mathematical model of such a system is used to
evaluate the reliability of the information managementnecessary to provide the
competitiveness of the system.